Three-dimensional ray tracing in python

I was looking for an algorithm for ray tracing in 3-D, and it took me some while to find one which can easily be programmed. Finally, I ran into this page, where a 3-D ray-tracing algorithm is clearly explained along with an example for programming. I decided to share my Python 2.7 implementation so that searchers either find this code and use it, or spend less time finding the reference to program their own code.

I wrote the algorithm in Python, slightly modified compared to the one in the link such that it is more suitable for checking whether a point is inside a (not necessarily convex) polygon.

import numpy as np

# source: http://geomalgorithms.com/a06-_intersect-2.html

def ray_intersect_triangle(p0, p1, triangle):
    # Tests if a ray starting at point p0, in the direction
    # p1 - p0, will intersect with the triangle.
    #
    # arguments:
    # p0, p1: numpy.ndarray, both with shape (3,) for x, y, z.
    # triangle: numpy.ndarray, shaped (3,3), with each row
    #     representing a vertex and three columns for x, y, z.
    #
    # returns: 
    #    0.0 if ray does not intersect triangle, 
    #    1.0 if it will intersect the triangle,
    #    2.0 if starting point lies in the triangle.

    v0, v1, v2 = triangle
    u = v1 - v0
    v = v2 - v0
    normal = np.cross(u, v)

    b = np.inner(normal, p1 - p0)
    a = np.inner(normal, v0 - p0)
    
    # Here is the main difference with the code in the link.
    # Instead of returning if the ray is in the plane of the 
    # triangle, we set rI, the parameter at which the ray 
    # intersects the plane of the triangle, to zero so that 
    # we can later check if the starting point of the ray
    # lies on the triangle. This is important for checking 
    # if a point is inside a polygon or not.
    
    if (b == 0.0):
        # ray is parallel to the plane
        if a != 0.0:
            # ray is outside but parallel to the plane
            return 0
        else:
            # ray is parallel and lies in the plane
            rI = 0.0
    else:
        rI = a / b

    if rI < 0.0:
        return 0

    w = p0 + rI * (p1 - p0) - v0

    denom = np.inner(u, v) * np.inner(u, v) - \
        np.inner(u, u) * np.inner(v, v)

    si = (np.inner(u, v) * np.inner(w, v) - \
        np.inner(v, v) * np.inner(w, u)) / denom
    
    if (si < 0.0) | (si > 1.0):
        return 0

    ti = (np.inner(u, v) * np.inner(w, u) - \
        np.inner(u, u) * np.inner(w, v)) / denom
    
    if (ti < 0.0) | (si + ti > 1.0):
        return 0

    if (rI == 0.0):
        # point 0 lies ON the triangle. If checking for 
        # point inside polygon, return 2 so that the loop 
        # over triangles can stop, because it is on the 
        # polygon, thus inside.
        return 2

    return 1

I hope it is useful for those who found this page!